Urban Traffic Speed Management: The Use of GPS/GIS

He triumphing visitors speed at any 168pg.net   phase of a roadway impacts the best of traffic at the
time. Whereas immoderate speeds affect the severity of avenue visitors accidents, crawling
speeds in the city environment is likewise indicative of congestion. One of the key factors
in pace control making plans is the useful type of roads via speed. For
example, 30km/h has been precise for residential regions and 60km/h and above for
major arterial roads. Nowadays, efficient automobile tracking may be completed via
integrating Global Positioning System (GPS) derived site visitors records along with automobile pace
and direction of traffic flow into a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment.
This GPS-GIS incorporated device affords real-time meaningful area and standing of the
cars inside the community. The gadget has been used to expose the second-to-2nd
positional modifications in velocity and guidelines of cars travelling in Kumasi, the second one
biggest town in Ghana. Using the geographic components in a dataset and visualizing the
results in a map provided a clearer image of the visitors-state of every direction in the
network. The GPS has certainly indicated the street sections where speeds are unacceptable
and driver behaviour is affected giving shipping planners the choice to select the preferred
speed management approach to improve the site visitors gadget.
1. INTRODUCTION
Speed management is really a way of adopting various methods along with legislation, avenue
layout measures, enforcement, campaigns or advanced generation to help in regulating
the velocity of automobiles. Speed management isn’t always about reducing velocity, but to
a widespread quantity it’s far about making plans and designing the street format and the street
community in any such manner that the ideal pace is obtained (Greibbe et al, 1999). It has
emerge as essential that velocity management techniques be applied to all types of urban
roads, from residential roads (wherein the strategies are extensively used) to arterial roads. The
most commonly used approach in velocity management is called ‘Traffic Calming’. This
method has mainly been used in nearby regions that allows you to lessen the speed or the visitors drift.
This can be accomplished through numerous speed control strategies, e.G. Avenue design, visible
effects, regulation, regulation or signing and staining.
TS seventy two – GIS Applications – Planning Issues 2/eleven
Joseph Owusu, Francis Afukaar and B.E.K. Prah
Urban Traffic Speed control – the Use of GPS/GIS
Shaping the Change
XXIII FIG Congress
Munich, Germany, October 8-13, 2006

In order to get a photograph of the present day visitors and safety situation, applicable information is commonly
gathered to cowl the road geometric parameters, injuries, visitors flow, surrounding,
and opinion of road-users and transporters. The records received is then processed and
mapped. The records received can in the end be used to create a database in
Geographical Information System (GIS) to assist in decision making for any making plans
manner which includes a velocity management application (Greibbe, et al, 1999). The advantage in
the usage of Global Positioning System (GPS) is that mapping of the applicable parameters can
without difficulty be completed in a GIS surroundings. This makes it viable to make a pre-assessment of
various measures associated with the neighborhood targets and which commonly proves to be conclusive.
Finally, visitors pace control bureaucracy a foundation on which you can verify the real
trends or pattern of site visitors and environmental-associated issues, and a premise for a
sufficiently true evaluation of the rate management technique followed.
2. THE FIELD OBSERVATIONS.
2.1 GPS Tracking – A automobile hooked up with GPS equipment is integrated with telemetry
or GSM transmission. Where a GPS receiver is used rather, places and speeds are
recorded automatically at regular sampling durations. The wireless GPS monitoring system
provides speedy and smooth get right of entry to to the time and travel facts that is wished. The
automobile’s role is recorded every second. When the positions have been recorded, the
GPS data is transported through the telemetry gadget to a traffic control in which the facts is
matched with a avenue network database. The tour instances and speeds for particular roads can
finally be obtained. The procedure is as shown in discern 1.

Fig. 1: The processes involved in GPS monitoring.
TS seventy two – GIS Applications – Planning Issues three/eleven
Joseph Owusu, Francis Afukaar and B.E.K. Prah
Urban Traffic Speed management – the Use of GPS/GIS
Shaping the Change
XXIII FIG Congress
Munich, Germany, October 8-thirteen, 2006

To triumph over the hassle of structures accuracy for the measurements, the GPS receivers
(a actual time DGPS machine) which affords a high accuracy in factor positioning become
hired. A base station was extensively utilized to correct the records accrued from the city street
community. The corrections have been good enough, since the distances from the bottom station have been
quick.
2.2 Field Speed Measurements
A full scale assignment the use of the GPS receivers changed into undertaken in Kumasi town for the vital
enterprise district (CBD) and the region adjacent the CBD however mendacity in the ring street
part of the town. The street network became divided into segments starting and finishing at
predetermined intersections of the roads. In preserving with recent studies which allude to
the fact that more than 60% of all journeys undertaken in Kumasi begins or ends at the Kejetia
Area (Afranie S; Afukaar FK; et al, 1993) the check automobile for the traffic control
study, used the town centre (Kejetia/CBD) because the starting place or vacation spot of all of the trips.
The car turned into pushed floating inside the visitors circulation with the aid of following the overall site visitors drift
throughout extraordinary time durations of the day. This enabled data to be collected on the
predicted traffic situations within the morning in addition to inside the afternoon for a complete of 7
days. For each path phase, the travel time between the beginning and finishing nodes become
computed from the GPS time facts. Knowing the gap between the nodes and the
respective journey time, the rate of the car alongside the unique street phase turned into then
computed. The universal velocity for the route became additionally computed based totally at the time and
distance dataset.
2.Three Road network data and Traffic sign Inventory Data Collection
GPS was used because the primary facts series device for mapping the general road network
and visitors sign inventories for the take a look at place. To accomplish the records series
activities, ArcMap turned into used to question the statistics collector for signal attribute records.
The GPS unit decided the placement of the sign at the same time as the records collector entered the
attribute records into a pc laptop which forms part of the GPS unit. At the
end of every statistics collection day, the facts turned into downloaded to the PC and similarly processed
inside the office. Any other specific signs and symptoms were collected one after the other using a digital digicam.

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